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MASTERPIECE2019

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Ö           DEFINE AND CAREFULLY DESCRIBE A SPECIFIC CONCEPT WE HAVE COVERED IN THIS COURSE THAT YOU WILL APPLY TO THE EXPERIENCE YOU HAD WHILE WATCHING THIS FILM (OR WATCHING A SCENE IN THIS FILM).

 

Ö           DESCRIBE EXACTLY WHAT HAPPENED IN THE FILM (AND IN THE SCENE YOU’RE FOCUSING ON).  WHAT DID THE CHARACTER(S) SAY OR DO?  WHAT WERE OTHERS DOING OR SAYING IN THE ENVIRONMENT?

 

Ö           DESCRIBE YOUR OWN RESPONSES – INITIAL EXPECTATIONS, ACTUAL PERCEPTIONS, THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, AND WISHES AT THE TIME.  AND HOW DID YOU RESPOND AFTERWARD?  WHAT DID YOU LEARN ABOUT YOURSELF AND/OR SOCIETY FROM THE EXPERIENCE.

 

Ö           APPLY THE CONCEPT FROM THE COURSE TO HOW YOU EXPERIENCED THE FILM AND SHOW HOW THE CONCEPT HELPS EXPLAIN OR CHARACTERIZE YOUR EXPERIENCE.  IF YOU WANT, ADD ALSO HOW IT EXPLAINS WHAT THE CHARACTER(S) EXPERIENCED.  (BUT MAKE SURE TO ANALYZE YOUR OWN RESPONSES; ONLY SECONDARILY ANALYZE THE CHARACTERS IF YOU HAVE SPACE .)

 

 

 

 

Choose a movie-

 

12 Angry Men

12 Monkeys
All the President’s Men

American Beauty

Angel at my Table

 

Freud ‐‐ why is there so much misunderstanding about Freudian theory? Freud was one of the first thinkers in Psychology. He really talked about the idea that there might be something like the unconscious. There might be parts of the mind/psyche that are working that you cannot directly access and observe, regulate and alter. There is nothing you can do to consciously change those processes. This stayed with him forever in terms of his model. Trained as a medical neurologist. (to be referred to a neurologist back in the day was the worst ‐‐ they get a very strange set of cases that are difficult to diagnose) As he is trying to come up with theories and solutions to the problems of his patients he is being ostracized and heavily criticized by his colleagues. His colleagues believed that he was attacking their society and that he was sick to think that the basis to the psychological problems of his patients were psychosexual abuse at a young age. It was also not a BIOLOGICAL solution. To physicians of that time, the psychological problems of patients had no biological/medical/scientific basis. There are different ways of thinking about what he was proposing and this is because he proposed two completely different theories. 1. <1905 ‐‐> Theory of Anxiety and Defense, The Seduction Theory, The Molestation Theory ‐ The idea that the painful experiences that you have/have had will lead you to feel incredibly pained and anxious and you will defend against those things that actually happened to you. Your mind will engage in a psychological defense that is designed to protect you. i. Human suffering can derive from early childhood trauma in the form of sexual abuse by someone and the defensive processes of the mind/psyche engage in are in favor of protecting you from that agony and betrayal. Psychosexual abuse is what occurred in reality. 1. Reality matters, so does your response. 2. The way you are treated in your life really matters in your development 3. Betrayal, disrespect is utterly hard to understand 4. Repression: this experience gets shoved out of the mind as a defensive maneuver into the unconscious so it becomes something not in the conscious awareness. 5. This produces psychopathology 2. >1905 ‐‐> The Drive‐Structure Model ‐ Freud claimed that even though it seemed evident that these women were sexually molested as women, what he realized was there was something altogether different going on. All people are born with a universal human instinct or drive. That drive that people are born with is psychosexual in nature. It is that this psychosexual instinct is infantile in nature. “Infantile psychosexual drive” These urges build up and over time they seek expression. Ultimately, the idea is that one is therefore pushed to need release from the resulting tension of this buildup to seek pleasure. The big shift is: you are BORN with a BIOLOGICALLY given level of drive. Refuting REALITY. Claimed to confuse the unconscious distortions of human psyche with the reality. REALITY NO LONGER MATTERS. i. Instinct = Libido 1. Migrates from one part of the body to another part of the body so initially you are seeking pleasure/gratification via one part of your body. a. First born: this part of the body would be the mouth. Your erotic impulses are in the oral cavity. Rolling tongue, need to suck, need to put things in the mouth. b. As it migrates it feeds into developmental processes. 2. SOURCE ‐ Biology (Libidinous drive) a. Libido is actually OBJECTLESS. The mind creates experiences that it NEEDS to create. Creates dynamics even though they did not actually occur. 3. AIM ‐ Seek Pleasure (Build up of tension) Lecture 2 Wednesday, September 9, 2015 12:31 PM 4. OBJECT ‐ ii. Its not that you’re sexually abused ‐‐ it’s that you have an unconscious drive to possess the object of your desire sexually. In the processes of desiring that it feeds into your psyche/mind creating a conflict between your conscious/unconscious. Therefore you develop yourself psychologically which can lead to neurosis and psychological defense against this “taboo.” iii. This instinct (LIBIDO) ends up fueling the entire psychic system. 1. ID a. Born with ID. In context of infant development you are just one bundle of libidinous instinct. ID is your unconscious desire. It is always seeking pleasure, gratification. The need to have wants satisfied, instantly. b. The Pleasure Principle ‐ get as much pleasure as possible NOW. c. The ID is essentially operating by something called PRIMARY PROCESS THINKING i. Very different kind of thinking. Largely symbolic. Most similar to your dream life. Irrational. Abstract. Not sequential, not logical. d. Operates totally outside of awareness. COMPLETELY UNCONSCIOUS. No ability to engage with reality. e. No ability to search the environment for an object 2. EGO a. Rational processes/thought. b. Develop a new way of thinking known as SECONDARY PROCESS THINKING i. Capability of thinking rationally, sequentially, logically etc. ii. Paradox: The ego as it is developing and you learn to think linearly… what it means is that the EGO has the capability of having some responsiveness to REALITY. Despite reality not truly mattering. Once ego is developed, according to Freud, the mind develops a capability to acknowledge that something is happening EXTERNALLY. c. REALITY PRINCIPLE d. Pulled between the desires of the ID and the restrictions of the SUPEREGO e. Ego experiences pressure from internal and external factors. As a result ‐‐> Freud claims that the EGO is essentially by definition WEAK. The EGO is a SLAVE to three very harsh masters. The masters: ID, SUPEREGO, REALITY. 3. SUPEREGO a. Conscience/rules/punishment b. You’re awareness of the taboo, disgust, shame. c. Awareness of penalties. d. EGO IDEAL ‐ what you aspire to be. What you wish to be. What you want to be. Aspirational, wishful idea of who you should be. Qualities that you must/want/aspire to have. iv. All people are born with psychosexual instinct/drive/libido. What accounts for the variability between the people he is treating if reality doesn’t matter? The differences are all reducible to BIOLOGY. Differences in the magnitudes of the libido that you were born with. EXPERIENCED IN A WAY THAT IS SUBJECTIVE THAT IS EXPLAINED BY BIOLOGY v. This theory is a cross‐culturally/universal set of processes that characterize ALL human development. vi. There is not a solution that calms the constant dynamic experienced in the human psyche.Introduction to Personality: ­ What is Personality Psychology? ​Personality Psychology explores the many aspects that reflect the richness and complexity of the phenomena to which the term refers. ­ Stable, Coherent Individual Differences: ​Different people react differently to same situations. ­ One goal of personality psychology is to FIND and DESCRIBE those individual differences between people that are psychologically meaningful and stable. ­ Personality: ​Refers to qualities of individuals that are relatively STABLE. ­ Predicting and Understanding: ­ Personality usually implies continuity or consistency i the individual. ­ Identifying consistent, stable individual DIFFERENCES is an important goal for personality psychologists → allows for the possibility of describing people and predicting future behavior as well knowing what to expect from a person. ­ Personality Psychologists also try to understand what UNDERLIES these differences → the WHY. ­ Defining Personality: ​with the above knowledge we can try to define PERSONALITY ­ ASSUMPTION: there are stable individual differences. Furthermore, these differences reflect an underlying organization or structure. ­ Definition: Personality psychology is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought.” ­ Different theories evolve, come and go as different theorists and researchers that are working at different levels of analysis,​addressing different aspects of personality. ­ Each level has its legitimacy and usefulness, and each has distinictive me
thods and concepts. ­ Findings do not necessarily conflict. ­ Add to fuller understanding and clarification as a whole. ­ Leads to a building a cumulative and coherent view of personality and human nature. Levels of Analysis: Organization of this Book ­ What to expect: ­ Major theoretical approaches to personality ­ Guided thinking and Research ­ Demonstration of how research and theory­building is done at each level of analysis. ­ Consideration of concepts and findings that are central to diverse views of human nature. ­ Text organized into SIX MAJOR LEVELS​of personality study. Page 7. ­ PART 1: The Trait­Dispositional Level: T​he Trait­ Dispositional Level seeks to identify the types of stable psychological qualities and behavioral dispositions that characterize different individuals and types consistently. ­ KEY QUESTIONS: ​What am I like as a person? How am I different from other people “on the whole”? In what general ways are people different from each other? Does what I usually do and think and feel depend mostly on myself or on the situation in which I find myself? When and how is my behavior influenced by the situation? How does my personality influence the situations I choose to be in? How does my personality influence the effects that different kinds of situations have on me? ­ Most vigorous and widely researched level analysis in recent years. ­ PART 2: The Biological Level:​An important goal of personality study at the biological level is to try to specify the role of genetic determinants and of the social environment in shaping who and what we become. ­ KEY QUESTIONS: ​What in my personality comes from the genes I inherited? How is my personality a reflection of my life experiences? How does my personality reflect my basic biological predispositions? Can my experiences change my biology? For instance, does my brain change when I’m depressed? How do the same experiences affect people with different genetic predispositions? Why is my personality so different (or similar) to my siblings? How does my biology influence my pursuit of life goals? How does evolutionary theory help me understand dating and social behavior today? ­ This level of analysis addresses the fact that we are biological beings. ­ Goal of this level of analysis: examine how aspects of personality may have evolved in response to the evolutionary pressures and history that shaped our species over time. ­ Example of questions: Will twins with the same biological data but raised in different environments have similar personalities 30 years later? ­ PART 3: The Psychodynamic­Motivational Level:​probes the motivations, conflicts, and defenses, often without one’s awareness, that can help explain complex consistencies and inconsistencies. in personality. ­ KEY QUESTIONS: ​Does what I do sometimes puzzle me? How and why? What are the real motives that drive or underlie my behavior? How can I explain irrational fears and anxieties? How do I try to protect myself psychologically against getting hurt? How much of what I do is unconscious or done without awareness? What might be some unconscious influences on my behavior? Do I have motives that make me uncomfortable? If yes what do I try to do about that? ­ This level of analysis relevant for understanding many puzzles of personality. ­ Much of the work at this level has been done in psychological therapy situations beginning with SIGMUND FREUD a century ago. ­ PART 4: The Behavioral­Conditioning Level: w​ork at this level of analysis has asked questions like: “How are important behavior patterns, including emotions and fears, learned? How does what I do and feel depend on my earlier experiences? How can my behavior and feelings be modified by new learning experiences? ­ Analyzes specific patterns of behavior that characterize individuals and the situations or conditions that seem to regulate their occurrence and strength. ­ Studies the determinants of learning and applies learning prinicples to modify problematic patterns of behavior and emotional reactions. ­ Behavioral analyses help understand conditions through which behaviors relevant to personality ­ from stutters through poor self­concepts, to troublesome behavior in interpersonal relationships­ are learned and can be modified. ­ Results have been applied to help people overcome a variety of serious personal difficulties, ranging from common but debilitating fears, to weight problems, to learning deficits and handicaps, to increasing personal assertiveness and self­esteem. ­ Part 5: The Phenomenological­Humanistic Level: W​orkers at this level of analysis are genuinely interested in HEARING and EXPLORING fully the answers people GIVE to questions. ­ KEY QUESTIONS: ​Who am “I” really? Who do I want to become? How do I see myself? How do I see my parents? What do I feel about myself when I don’t meet my parents’ expectations? How is my real self different from the self I would ideally like to be? What is my ideal self? How am I different from my mother but similar to my father? ­ work at this level begins by listening closely and trying to understand the individual’s EXPERIENCE as he or she PERCEIVES it. ­ Focus is on SUBJECTIVE experience, feelings, the personal view of the world and the self. ­ Focus also on people’s positive strivings and their tendencies toward growth and self­actualization ­ Helps in understanding the processes through which each person develops a sense of self and identity ­ a conception of who one is and wants to be. ­ Explores the link between the self and personality adjustment mental health and positive functioning. ­ PART 6: The Social Cognitive Level: T​he focus of personality research at this level includes the person’s social knowledge of the world, and how people make sense of other people and themselves and cope as they negotiate their interpersonal lives. ­ KEY QUESTIONS: ​What is the role in personality of what people know, think and feel? How does what I know, think, and feel about myself and the social world influence what I do and can become? What can I do to change how I think and feel? Will that change my personality and behavior? How much of who and what I am and do is “automatic”? How much is open to “willpower” and self­regulation? How do willpower and self­regulation work? How can I enhance my control over my life? ­ Examines individual differences in how SOCIAL KNOWLEDGE is used in dealing with the world, in construction of the self, in self­regulation and in self­control. ­ Specific focus is on the individual’s characteristic ways of thinking and processing information, both cognitively and emotionally, as determinants of his or her distinctive and meaningful patterns of experience and social behavior. FREUDIAN THEORY Id, Ego, superego is reducible to DRIVE ‐ Psychosexual urge [mostly in the UNCONSCIOUS] [REALITY DOESN’T MATTER] Ages What is Present: [0‐2] Id. Primary Process Thinking. Non‐Linear, Irrational. Need to satisfy the LIBIDO. Pleasure Principle ORAL STAGE: Libidinous urge in mouth. Infant sucks, bites, runs tongue. Etc. Near end: teething ‐hurts and feels good in some way. Experimentation with pain inflicting actions such as biting. Taking in and holding on. [2‐3] ANAL STAGE: Libido migrates to the anal cavity. There’s pleasure with excreting. About the build up of tension letting things go. A battle with someone or something ‐ a battle you will lose. What is this battle? The idea of potty training. You cannot just walk around and defecate where you please. You learn to adapt to the reactions of those around you. Learn the regulation of this very powerful urge. By the end of the anal stage you acquire the EGO. This is the mediator that allows you to have some capacity to perceive the pressures of external reality. Learn the capacity to engage with reality. Engage in SECONDARY PROCESS THINKING. You have the capacity to grasp: THIS IS NOT A TOILET THIS IS A CHAIR SO LET ME WAIT UNTIL I’m ON A TOILET. Linear thinking. [3‐5] PHALLIC STAGE. Libido migrates to the genital area. (NOT GENI
TAL STAGE) This is the case that libido is migrating from the back to the front. Freud develops separate theories for boy and girl. Development of superego. All development stops at the age of 5. BOYS: Boy becomes aware of his penis. He starts to learn about his organ. He is proud of his little guy lol. Around that same moment he plays around with his appendage it is AS IF this little boy looks over at a naked girl and goes “OMG what happened to her?! There’s nothing there. It’s gone?!”…. “What could happen to me?! Is it possible for me not to have a penis?!” He is wanting to possess his mother sexually. He wants to have her to himself to be able to have sexual intercourse with his mother and is having the urge towards that. BUT ‐ because this kid has already developed an ego and has some capacity to detect reality as minimal as it is understand that there are big men the size of his mother and that he really can’t do things. This adult male present in mothers life will be pretty pissed off if he finds out that he wants to possess his mother. This male figure can hurt him through the form of CASTRATION. ‐‐> CASTRATION ANXIETY. This anxiety is so huge that this kids undergoes a mental distortion of what his urges are and finds a way to identify with this scary person in order to become similar to this adult male then in principle he can become the kind of person who can in principle copulate with someone like his mother. OEDIPUS COMPLEX. This leads to the development of the SUPEREGO. = EGO IDEALS, Conscience.‐> Seeking perfection. Defensive process through which a Superego develops: Identification with the Aggressor GIRLS: She assumed that her own body was not the natural state of affair. Symbolically: amazed by the male genitals. Upset with her own genitals. Feels defaced, harmed, ugly. She desires to have his penis. Who took her penis? The mother. Mother chopped it off already. Why? Revenge against her because she wanted to possess her father or adult male sexually so that she can possess a penis in that way. Wants to be impregnated and in such a way to have a boy. In that way she has her own penis indirectly. This is called: Penis Envy. Electra complex. Identifies with her mom and takes on her characteristics and so develops her SUPEREGO. Girls have an inherent masochism. Super ego is weaker. Women are ultimately less moral and ethical. Less driven by conscience than boys and men.DEVELOPMENT OF PATHOPSYCHOLOGY: How you end up with psychological disorder. Everything starts out with libido and everything depends on the strength of your libido/drive. This libidinous drive is what sets the stage for everything else. This tells us whether or not you will end up over‐gratified or under‐gratified. If you are born with really strong drive states‐‐ then no matter what you are exposed to in reality ‐ there will be nothing that is enough to satisfy you. Insatiable desire for needs. If you are born with relatively week libido ‐ then everything you experience in reality becomes over whelming and stimulating. Lecture 3 Monday, September 14, 2015 12:25 PM FREUDIAN THEORY Id, Ego, superego is reducible to DRIVE ‐ Psychosexual urge [mostly in the UNCONSCIOUS] [REALITY DOESN’T MATTER] Ages What is Present: [0‐2] Id. Primary Process Thinking. Non‐Linear, Irrational. Need to satisfy the LIBIDO. Pleasure Principle ORAL STAGE: Libidinous urge in mouth. Infant sucks, bites, runs tongue. Etc. Near end: teething ‐hurts and feels good in some way. Experimentation with pain inflicting actions such as biting. Taking in and holding on. [2‐3] ANAL STAGE: Libido migrates to the anal cavity. There’s pleasure with excreting. About the build up of tension letting things go. A battle with someone or something ‐ a battle you will lose. What is this battle? The idea of potty training. You cannot just walk around and defecate where you please. You learn to adapt to the reactions of those around you. Learn the regulation of this very powerful urge. By the end of the anal stage you acquire the EGO. This is the mediator that allows you to have some capacity to perceive the pressures of external reality. Learn the capacity to engage with reality. Engage in SECONDARY PROCESS THINKING. You have the capacity to grasp: THIS IS NOT A TOILET THIS IS A CHAIR SO LET ME WAIT UNTIL I’m ON A TOILET. Linear thinking. [3‐5] PHALLIC STAGE. Libido migrates to the genital area. (NOT GENITAL STAGE) This is the case that libido is migrating from the back to the front. Freud develops separate theories for boy and girl. Development of superego. All development stops at the age of 5. BOYS: Boy becomes aware of his penis. He starts to learn about his organ. He is proud of his little guy lol. Around that same moment he plays around with his appendage it is AS IF this little boy looks over at a naked girl and goes “OMG what happened to her?! There’s nothing there. It’s gone?!”…. “What could happen to me?! Is it possible for me not to have a penis?!” He is wanting to possess his mother sexually. He wants to have her to himself to be able to have sexual intercourse with his mother and is having the urge towards that. BUT ‐ because this kid has already developed an ego and has some capacity to detect reality as minimal as it is understand that there are big men the size of his mother and that he really can’t do things. This adult male present in mothers life will be pretty pissed off if he finds out that he wants to possess his mother. This male figure can hurt him through the form of CASTRATION. ‐‐> CASTRATION ANXIETY. This anxiety is so huge that this kids undergoes a mental distortion of what his urges are and finds a way to identify with this scary person in order to become similar to this adult male then in principle he can become the kind of person who can in principle copulate with someone like his mother. OEDIPUS COMPLEX. This leads to the development of the SUPEREGO. = EGO IDEALS, Conscience.‐> Seeking perfection. Defensive process through which a Superego develops: Identification with the Aggressor GIRLS: She assumed that her own body was not the natural state of affair. Symbolically: amazed by the male genitals. Upset with her own genitals. Feels defaced, harmed, ugly. She desires to have his penis. Who took her penis? The mother. Mother chopped it off already. Why? Revenge against her because she wanted to possess her father or adult male sexually so that she can possess a penis in that way. Wants to be impregnated and in such a way to have a boy. In that way she has her own penis indirectly. This is called: Penis Envy. Electra complex. Identifies with her mom and takes on her characteristics and so develops her SUPEREGO. Girls have an inherent masochism. Super ego is weaker. Women are ultimately less moral and ethical. Less driven by conscience than boys and men. OVER/UNDER Gratification Conflict/Profound Strong FIXATION Conflict/Not Profound Partial FIXATION