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Sample Questions

Sample questions

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Cognition And Instruction


As the views on cognitivism and constructivism have grown, researchers no longer view learning as response changes due to stimuli or reinforcement. Instead, researchers have become more interested in a student’s beliefs and thought processes. In this unit, we cover skill acquisition—as it pertains to novices and experts—and metacognition. Metacognition is comprised of two sets of skills: (1) understanding what skills, strategies, and resources a student needs, and (2) monitoring when to use these skills and strategies.



To successfully complete this learning unit, you will be expected to:


Examine key cognitive processes of learning including conditional knowledge, metacognition, concept learning, problem solving, transfer, and their applications to instruction.

Differentiate the historical views of transfer and provide a cognitive explanation for transfer of knowledge, skills, and strategies.

Analyze the differences between near and far transfer and provide examples of each.

Provide an approach for teaching problem-solving to adults.

Evaluate the major aspects of constructivism by analyzing their strengths and weaknesses, applying the theory to a practical situation, and comparing it to behaviorism, social cognitive theory, and cognitive information processing.

(–Part 1) Transfer..

Learning is useless if we cannot transfer what we have learned to solve a real-life problem. For this discussion, complete the following:  Differentiate the historical views of transfer and provide a cognitive explanation for transfer of knowledge, skills, and strategies.

What do you think the difference is between near and far transfer? For each, provide an example to explain your thinking.


(Part 2)  Problem-Solving

Problem-solving is one of the most important cognitive processes that occurs during learning.  If you were teaching a class on problem-solving with both novices and experts, what would you do differently to enhance learning of each group?





Use your textbook to complete the following:


In Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective, read Chapter 7, “Cognitive Learning Processes,” pages 280–344. This chapter is an extension of the basic elements of human information processing and extends the perspective to the operation of key cognitive processes of learning.